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Housing the Orphans of European Security: How to Bring Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova in from the Cold

Robert M. Cutler

Abstract: From 1989 through 1991, while the Soviet bloc was falling apart but before the Soviet Union officially disintegrated, the EU had three choices for extending European construction eastwards. These were: (1) widening itself by admitting more members from the “Central and Eastern Europe countries” (CEEC), (2) exporting itself eastward as a “model,” and (3) developing itself as a security agent consciously promoting integration as a specific security tool. It chose the last of these via Association Agreements (AAs) that turned into the “Europa” Agreements, a variety of AA explicitly not modeled on early AAs such as those with Greece and Turkey. This article explores what policy instruments are available to the EU to promote cooperative security involving the “orphans” (Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova), now that it has signed agreements with the governments of the Soviet successor states and begun to extend technical assistance and other aid to them. It begins with a survey of the situation of the three “orphans” of European security. For each of them, a period of emergence out from under the Soviet rubble (1990–1992) was followed by the beginning of a Western response (1993–1995). The next part of the article situates the orphans together in their relations with the two principal integration organizations of Central and Eastern Europe, viz., the CEFTA and the Central European Initiative (CEI, formerly Hexagonale, formerly Pentagonale). The contemporary position of the orphans is then evaluated. Four general policies are recommended to ameliorate their situation. These are: deepening transborder cooperation, anchoring Russia in Europe, promoting democratization, and enlarged Central-European multilateralism. Particular suggestions are made to illustrate how to put these policies into effect. A conclusion looks to the future.

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  1. Introduction
  2. The Orphans of European Security in the 1990s
  3. Policies to House the Orphans in Europe
  4. Multilateral Central-European Instruments for Housing the Orphans in Europe
  5. Conclusion
Suggested citation for this webpage:

Robert M. Cutler, “Housing the Orphans of European Security: How to Bring Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova in from the Cold,” Euro-Atlantic Forum 1, no. 2 (Spring 1998); available at ⟩http://www.robertcutler.org/ar98eaf.htm⟩, accessed 23 February 2018 .

Dr. Robert M. Cutlerwebsiteemail ] was educated at MIT and The University of Michigan, where he earned a Ph.D. in Political Science, and has specialized and consulted in the international affairs of Europe, Russia, and Eurasia since the late 1970s. He has held research and teaching positions at major universities in the United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, and Russia, and contributed to leading policy reviews and academic journals as well as the print and electronic mass media in three languages.

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Text: Copyright © Robert M. Cutler
First Web-published: 03 January 2008
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